Update in pathological diagnosis of orbital infections and inflammations


  • Vincent B Lam Choi Department of Ophthalmology & Visual Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Eye Hospital, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, China.
  • Hunter KL Yuen Hong Kong Eye Hospital, Hospital Authority Ophthalmic Services, Hong Kong SAR, China.
  • Jyotirmay Biswas Department of Ocular Pathology, Sankara Nethralaya, Chennai, India.
  • Myron Yanoff Department of Ophthalmology, Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, United States.


Orbital inflammations include a broad spectrum of orbital diseases that can be infectious, from a primary or second- ary inflammatory process, or idiopathic. Being able to properly diagnose and manage these orbital diseases in a timely manner can avoid permanent visual loss and pos- sibly save a patient’s life. When clinicians are faced with such patients, quite often the exact diagnosis cannot be made based on clinical examination; various laboratory tests and imaging are also needed. Often, orbital biopsies with histopathological analyses may also be required, especially for the atypical cases. Thus, it is important for the clinicians to be familiar with the pathological and other characteristics of these orbital diseases. This review provides a comprehensive update on the clinical and pathological diagnosis of these orbital infections and inflammations.




How to Cite

Lam Choi VB, Yuen HK, Biswas J, Yanoff M. Update in pathological diagnosis of orbital infections and inflammations. Hong Kong J Ophthalmol [Internet]. 2011Dec.1 [cited 2023Dec.6];15(2):48-57. Available from: https://hkjo.hk/index.php/hkjo/article/view/40



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