Update in pathological diagnosis of orbital infections and inflammations
Orbital inflammations include a broad spectrum of orbital diseases that can be infectious, from a primary or second- ary inflammatory process, or idiopathic. Being able to properly diagnose and manage these orbital diseases in a timely manner can avoid permanent visual loss and pos- sibly save a patient’s life. When clinicians are faced with such patients, quite often the exact diagnosis cannot be made based on clinical examination; various laboratory tests and imaging are also needed. Often, orbital biopsies with histopathological analyses may also be required, especially for the atypical cases. Thus, it is important for the clinicians to be familiar with the pathological and other characteristics of these orbital diseases. This review provides a comprehensive update on the clinical and pathological diagnosis of these orbital infections and inflammations.
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