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Submission Preparation Checklist

As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.
  • Publication: Each of the authors warrants that the enclosed article is original and does not infringe any copyright or violate any other right of any third parties, and that the article has not been published elsewhere or is not being considered for publication elsewhere in any form, except as explained to the Editor. A declaration detailing any prior presentation is included in the manuscript.
  • Authorship: The Hong Kong Journal of Ophthalmology follows the ICMJE Recommendations for defining authorship. Authors must meet ALL FOUR of the following criteria:
    (1) Substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work; AND
    (2) Drafting the work or revising it critically for important intellectual content; AND
    (3) Final approval of the version to be published; AND
    (4) Agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.

    ALL and ONLY individuals meeting these requirements should be credited as authors. Individuals who contributed substantially to the study but do not meet these requirements should be acknowledged.
  • Conflicts of interest: A detailed definition of conflicts of interest is provided by ICMJE ( Please declare if there are any conflicts of interests in the past 3 years. ALL authors must state any conflicts of interest in the Declaration section of the manuscript or submit an individual ICMJE form ( If there are no conflicts of interest, state “All authors have no conflicts of interest to disclose.”
  • Funding/Support: State any funding source/grants (with grant numbers) or other material support for the study.
    If appropriate, add: “The funder had no role in study design, data collection/analysis/interpretation or manuscript preparation.” or “This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.” in the Funding/Support section of the manuscript.
  • Acknowledgement: All and only individuals who have made substantial contributions but who do not fulfil the authorship criteria should be acknowledged in the Acknowledgement section of the manuscript. The Corresponding Author must obtain written permission from all individuals named in the Acknowledgement.
  • Ethics Approval: For research articles, a statement should be included in the Ethics Approval section of the manuscript declaring that (1) the study obtained ethics approval, with the name of the ethics committee(s) or institutional review board(s) and the reference number of the approval(s), and that the participants (or a parent/guardian) gave informed consent before the study, OR that (2) a waiver was given by the ethics committee / institutional review board.

    Prospective human clinical trials must have been preregistered in a clinical trial database. For these articles, the registration number and database name are included in the manuscript.
  • Patient consent for publication: Please include statements in the manuscript that (A) the patient was treated in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki, (B) the patient provided informed consent for the treatment/procedures, and (C) the patient provided consent for publication.
  • Copyright Transfer: The Corresponding Author, on behalf of all the authors, hereby grant and assign to the Hong Kong Journal of Ophthalmology worldwide copyrights of the manuscript (including all related diagrams, photographs and other material) if it is accepted for publication.

Author Guidelines

Aims and Scope
• The Hong Kong Journal of Ophthalmology (HKJO) is the official publication of the College of Ophthalmologists of Hong Kong. The Journal aims to promote academic developments in ophthalmology, and to maintain continuing ophthalmological education of doctors of this specialty and other related disciplines. It is hoped that through achieving these aims, the quality of eyecare we offer to our patients can be lifted to new heights. The Journal will consider any submissions that fulfill these aims for publication.
• The Journal accepts high-quality submissions in the following categories: Original Article, Review, Perspective, Case Report, Photo Essay, Clinical Quiz, or Letter to the Editor. Editorials are by invitation only.
• The Journal is circulated to all members of the College of Ophthalmologists of Hong Kong and other professional societies and academic institutions in Hong Kong and internationally.


Journal Policies
• The HKJO adheres to the Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE; and the Core Practices of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE;
• Submitted manuscripts must be original works that have not been published elsewhere (in whole, in part, or as a preprint) and are not under consideration by another publication.
• To improve the quality and clarity of published articles, the Journal recommends the use of reporting guidelines in the preparation of manuscripts, such as those advocated by the EQUATOR Network (, for example, CONSORT for randomized trials, or CARE for case reports.
• Any sponsor(s) of the research involved, along with grant number(s) should be provided.
• All authors must provide a statement reporting any conflicts of interest. Where none exist, please state ‘The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare.’ Authors may use the ICMJE Conflict of Interest form.
• For all research involving living humans (including studies involving human tissue, retrospective studies, and database studies), an appropriate research ethics committee must be consulted. A statement must be included in the manuscript that provides the name of the research ethics committee and approval number (or waiver)
• A statement on consent must also be included, indicating how patient(s)/guardian(s) provided informed consent (eg, written or verbal), or that the requirement for patient consent was waived by the review board.
• The authors shall make available the complete data on which the manuscript is based. A statement describing how the data can be accessed must be included in the manuscript. For clinical trials and other large datasets, the Journal recommends that data are deposited in a public repository and shared using a permanent identifier (such as a DOI).
• For details of the Journal policies on publication ethics, including authorship, plagiarism, and processes for handling appeals or complaints, please see the Journal website.


• Manuscripts should be submitted through the HKJO online submission system at Please register for an account with the system and upload files according to the instructions. All files must be submitted through the system.
• Please provide a blinded manuscript as a single file. Any identifying information (eg, references to past publications, name of an author’s institution) should be masked or removed from the blinded manuscript.
• Manuscripts should be submitted in Word format (.doc or .docx).
• Manuscripts must be written in English (US spellings as per the Merriam-Webster Dictionary).
• In general, manuscripts should be prepared following the ‘IMRaD’ structure as recommended by the ICMJE (
• For each author, please provide the full name, professional qualifications, and affiliation (where the study was conducted)
• The full name, postal address, telephone and fax numbers, and email address of the corresponding author must be provided. The corresponding author, on behalf of the authors, is responsible for all contact with the Journal.
• A structured abstract of ≤250 words is required for Review Articles and Original Articles. The abstract should provide a complete summary of the article, including the aims/purpose, main methods, key results, and conclusions. Abbreviations and clinical or technical jargon should be avoided.
• Tables should be typed using the ‘Insert Table’ feature of MS Word, with one item of data per cell and minimal formatting. Large tables may be provided in MS Excel format. Tables should be numbered and concisely titled. Abbreviations should be defined in footnotes.
• The number of figures should be restricted to the minimum necessary to support the textual material. Figures should be .JPG format with a resolution of ≥350 dpi. Figures should be included in the manuscript file; large image files may be submitted separately. Legends should be provided for each figure to indicate the anatomical area and pathological condition shown. All symbols and abbreviations should be defined in the legend.
• The references should be numbered in the order in which they are first cited in the text. Each reference citation should be in superscript Arabic numerals after full-stops and commas. At the end of the article, the full list of references should be presented in Vancouver style. Include the names of all authors, title of the article, abbreviated name of journal, year of publication, volume number, and inclusive pages, in that order.
• Please refer to the latest ICMJE recommendations on Manuscript Preparation for further information on references and for general guidance on style:


Peer Review

• Two peer reviewers with relevant expertise will be invited to review each submitted manuscript. For articles with statistical analysis, our statistical referee may be consulted to review the data processing. Manuscripts will be referred back for revision on the basis of comments received.

• HKJO operates a double-blind peer-review process. The Editorial Office does not reveal the identities of the authors to the peer reviewers during the review process. Similarly, the identities of the reviewers will not be disclosed to the authors.


• On acceptance of an article for publication in HKJO, copyright of the article is transferred to the Journal.
• The Journal has a fully Open Access policy and publishes all articles under a Creative Commons license (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0). For any use other than that permitted by this license, written permission must be obtained from the Journal.



• All correspondence on editorial issues should be addressed to: Dr Alvin KH Kwok, Editor-in-Chief, Hong Kong Journal of Ophthalmology, c/o Hong Kong Academy of Medicine Press, 10/F, Hong Kong Academy of Medicine Jockey Club Building, 99 Wong Chuk Hang Road, Aberdeen, Hong Kong. Telephone: (852) 2871 8807; Fax: (852) 2505 5577; E-mail:

Original Articles

Provides new information based on original research. Includes prospective studies with in-depth statistical analysis, unique retrospective observations of a disease or disorder, and studies of novel applications of an interventional procedure or treatment method.

Review Articles

Systematic reviews or meta-analyses of recent developments in a specific topic. Scoping reviews of the literature that identify area(s) for future research will also be considered. No new information is described, and no subjective opinion or personal experiences are expressed.


Narrative review articles discussing recent developments in a specific topic. No new information is described; may include subjective opinion or personal experiences.

Case Report

Brief discussion of a case with unique features not previously described. Additional cases (case series) may be added to augment the discussion. The discussion should be succinct and focus on a specific message.

Photo Essay

Teaching exercise with message in the figures and legends. Emphasis is on quality of the illustrations and clinical relevance of the message.

Letters to the Editor

Short letter on any matter of interest to journal readers, including comments on an article that has previously appeared in the journal. The authors of the article commented on would be invited to reply.

Privacy Statement

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