Penetrating keratoplasty has been the standard procedure for treating diseases of the cornea. Recent advances in corneal surgery have enabled component surgery of the cornea to be performed, replacing only the necessary tissue instead of the entire cornea. Major changes oc- curring in corneal transplantation are related in part to better equipment, and recent improvements of surgical tech- nique and advances in instrumentation have contributed to improved visual quality with lamellar keratoplasty sur- gery, making the procedures more accessible and easier to perform. The past decade has seen rapid advances in the field of lamellar surgery, particularly posterior lamellar graft for endothelial dysfunction — endothelial kerato- plasty. The shift in corneal transplantation to endothelial keratoplasty is the beginning of an exciting new era in cor- neal transplant surgery. The aim of this article is to review the evolution of endothelial keratoplasty, the nomencla- ture, and the current status of endothelial transplantation
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