Ion transport mechanisms in the formation of aqueous humor
AbstractThe aqueous humor dynamics of the eye are frequently associated with the vision-threatening disease, glaucoma. Pharmacological treatment for glaucoma generally aims to lower the intraocular pressure by reducing aqueous humor formation. Although the aqueous humor is believed to be actively secreted by the ciliary epithelium, the mechanism is still poorly understood. Many studies have been carried out in the last 40 years to unravel the underlying ionic mechanisms that drive aqueous humor formation. This review briefly surveys the ion transports in the ciliary epithelium, such as the possible roles of sodium, chloride and bicarbonate ions as the driving forces. It also examines the current ionic models for aqueous humor formation and its regulation from a cellular transport perspective.
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